2. Leaders & Teachers

2.      The Central Figures of the Shafi’i School

a.)    In the 3rd Century (200-300 AH):

Narrators of the Old school (al-Qadim)

I.            Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal

II.            Abu Thawr

III.            al-Za’farani

IV.            Al Karabisi

Narrators of the New school (al-Jadid):

I.            Al Muzani

II.            Al Buwayti

III.            Rabi’ al-Muraadi

IV.            Harmala

V.            Rabi’ al-Jezi

VI.            Yunis bin Abd Al ‘Alaa

All mentioned above died in the 3rd century—i.e. 200 – 300 AH.

b.)    In the 4th Century (300-400 AH)

I.            Imam Ibn Suraij

II.            Al-Qafaal al-Shashi

III.            Abu Hamid Al Isfaraeni

IV.            Al Istakhry

V.            Al Marwazi

VI.            Ibn Abi Hurayra

VII.            Ibn Al Qaas

c.)    In the 5th  Century (400-500 AH)

I.            al Mawardi

II.            Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi

III.            Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni along his son Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni

IV.            Al Bayhaqi

V.            Al Bandaniji

VI.            Al Mahamili

VII.            Al Qafaal al-Saghir al-Marwazi

VIII.            Al Qadi Hussain

IX.            Al Furani

X.            Al Mas’udi

XI.            Ibn al-Sabbaagh

XII.            Al Mutawalli

d.)    In the 6th Century (500-600 AH)

I.            Al Ghazzali

II.            Al-Shashi

III.            Al Baghawi

IV.            Al ‘Imraani

e.)    In the 7th Century (600-700 AH)

I.            Ibn As-Salah

II.            Al Qizwini

III.            Al ‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salam

IV.            Ibn al-Firkah

V.            Ibn Daqiq al-‘Eid

VI.            Al-Rafi’I

VII.            Nawawi

Al-Rafi’i and al-Nawawi are the two great imams of the school whose development of al-Shafi’i’s legal tradition in the 7th century marks one of the school’s most transformative periods.

f.)     In the 8th century (700-800 AH)

I.            Ibn al-Rifa’h

II.            Al-Taqi As-Subki

III.            Al Qamouli

IV.            Al Isnawi

V.            Al Adhra’i

VI.            Al Bulqini

VII.            Ibn al-Mulaqqin

VIII.            Al-Zarkashi

IX.            Ibn Al-Naqib

X.            Al-Sharaf al-Barizi

XI.            Al Muhib al-Tabari

g.)    In the 9th Century (800-900 AH)

I.            Al Wali al-Iraqi

II.            Al-Taqi al-Hisni

III.            Al-Shihab Ibn Rislan, author of Safwat al-Zubad

IV.            Ibn Qadi Shuhba

V.            Ibn al-Muzajjad

VI.            Al-Damiri

VII.            Al Jalal al- Mahalli

VIII.            Al Aqfahsi

IX.            Ibn al-Muqri

X.            ‘Abd Allah Bin Abd al-Rahman Ba Fadal

h.)    In the 10th Century (900-1000 AH)

I.            Al Jalal al-Suyuti

II.            Shaikh Al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari

III.            Al Khatib al-Shirbini

IV.            Al-Shihab al-Ramli and his son Shams al-Din

V.            Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

VI.            ‘Abd Allah bin Makhrama

VII.            Ibn Qasim al-‘Abbadi

VIII.            Ba Qushayr

IX.            Ibn Ziyad

i.)      In the 11th century (1000-1100 AH)

I.            Al Burhaan al-Birmawi

II.            Ali al-Shabramallisi

III.            Al-Rashidi

j.)      In the 12th Century (1100-1200 AH)

I.            Muhammad Sulaiman Al-Kurdi, the Faqih of Hijaaz

II.            Sulaiman al-Jamal

k.)    In the 13th Century (1200-1300 AH)

I.            Al Bajuri

II.            Al Sharqawi

III.            Al Bujairami

IV.            ‘Abd Allah bin Hussain Balfaqih

V.            ‘Abd Allah bin Ahmad Ba Sudan

VI.            Sa’id bin Muhammad Ba ‘Ishn

VII.            ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Sulaiman al-Ahdal

VIII.            Ali Ba Sabrayn

l.)      In the 14 Century (1300-1400 AH)

I.            Al Sayyid ‘Alawi bin Ahmad al-Saqqaf

II.            Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan

III.            Bakri Shata

IV.            Abd al-Rahman al-Mashhur

V.            Abu Bakr bin Abd Ar-Rahmaan bin Shihab

VI.            Abu Bakr bin Ahmad al-Khatib

VII.            ‘Abd Allah Ba Jammaah

VIII.            ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Umar al-Shatiri

IX.            Ahmad bin ‘Umar al-Shatiri

X.            ‘Abd al-Rahmaan Bin ‘Ubaid Allah al-Saqqaf

XI.            Muhammad bin Hadi al-Saqqaf

XII.            Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafiz

These are just a few of the key figures who represent the late- Shafi’i legal tradition but there are many more who appeared in this later period and produced many beneficial works. May Allah have mercy on them all! In fact, the central figures of the school in general are too large in number to count. Sufficient proof of that is illustrated by Imam al-Subki in his ten volume work Tabaqat al-Shafi’iyyah al-Kubra. In this work, not only does al-Subki show that imams of the school were many in number but also the extent to which these imams dedicated their lives to the Shafi’i school. Because of their sheer number and their meticulous development and preservation of the Shafi’I legal tradition, the Shafi’i imams outstripped advancements made by the other legal schools and eventually became leading figures and foremost authorities in nearly all of the Islamic sciences—a point proven in the statistics that follow.

a.)    In the science of usul al-fiqh: Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, author of al-Burhan, al-Ghazzali, author of al-Mustasfa, al-Razi, author of al-Mahsul, al-Taj al-Subki, author of Jam al-Jawami’, al-Baydhawi, author of Minhaj al-Usul, and many others. To date, the foregoing works are some of the most important writings in usul al-fiqh literature.

b.)    In the science of hadith: al-Daraqutni, Ibn Khuzayma, Ibn Hibban, Abu Nu’aym, Ibn Al Mundhir, al-Khattabi, al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, the author of al-Sunan, al-Hafidh al-Bayhaqi, al-Zain al-‘Iraqi, author of the famous Alfiyyah,  Al Haythami, author of Majma’ al-Zawa’id—not to be confused with al-Haytami, Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, author of Fath al-Bari, and many others.

c.)    In the subject of history and biography: Ibn ‘Asakir, author of Tarikh Dimashq, al-Dhahabi, author of Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, al-Safadi, author of al-Wafi, Ibn Kathir, author of al Bidayat wa al Nihayah, Ibn al-Athir, author of al-Kamil, and others.

d.)    In the science of theology: al-Halimi, author of Shu’ab al-Iman, ‘Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, author of al-Matalib al-‘Aliyah, al-Adhud al-Iji, al-Amidi, al-‘Ala’ al-Baji, al-Asfahani, al-Taftazani, and others.

e.)    In the science of Quranic exegesis: al-Mawardi, author of al-Nukat wa al-‘Uyun, al-Khazin, al-Baghawi, author of Ma’alim al-Tanzil, and others.

f.)     In the science of Quranic recitation: al-Ja’bari, Ibn al-Jazari, author of al-Nashr, and al-Shihab al-Qastalani.

g.)    In linguistics: Abu Hayyan al-Andulusi, Ibn Malik, author of Alfiyyah, Ibn ‘Aqil, Ibn Hisham, al-Fayruzabadi, author of al-Qamus, and others.

h.)    In the sciences of the heart: al-Qushayri, author of al-Risalat al-Qushayriyyah, al-Ghazzali, and Imam ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Alawi al-Haddad.