Shafi’i School Introduction

Arabic Intro Pages 29-46

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

Class Notes 6/23/2013

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

1. The Founder of the School

His name is Mohamed bin Idris A shafai’i Al Matlabi

his lineage meets with the Prophet Salle Allah ‘Alahi w Salim’s Grandfather Abd Manaf

He was born in Gazza year 150 AH

Carried by his Mother back to their native land in Mecca

Studied  Islamic Sciences with the Mufti of Mecca Khalid bin Muslim Azinji, Al Fudayl bin Iyaad, Sufyan bin ‘Uyyanah and many more.

Then he travelled to Medina when he was 12 years old and memorised Imam Malik’s Muwatta in 9 Days in preparation of attending Imam Malik’s Classes

Which he indeed did attend and excelled all of his classmates

he gathered knowledge from both Mecca & Medina Scholars of his time

and Was given permission to give fatwa when he was only 15 years old

along side of what he learned he was a poet and a linguist

The famous Al Asma’i “The narrator of Arab Poetry” states that he learned from A shafai’i

And Al Asma’i narrates from A shafai’i the Poetry of the tribe of Bani Huthayl

after the death of Imam Malik he travelled to Yemen where he studied with  Mutarif bin Mazin, Hisham bin Yusuf Al Qadi, Amr bin Abi Salama & Yahya bin Hassaan

then he travelled to Iraq where he studied with Wakee’ bin Al Jarraah, Mohamed bin Hasan Ashaybani the Faqeeh of Iraq, Hammad bin Usamah, Ayub bin Suwaid Ar-Rumli, Abdelwahab bin Abdul Majid & Ismaeal bin Ulayyah

and during his studying in Iraq he wrote his first book Al Hujja “Also known as the Old Mathhab”

also when he was in Iraq is when we begin seeing the students approaching him to learn and study with him we see the likes of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal & Abu Thawr narrating ashafai’i statements

then A shafai’i headed towards Egypt where he change several of his research conclusion based on many different factors, but here is where we see ashafai’i structure take place and a sound foundation laid out via his book Al Umm in Furu’ then Ar-Risala in Usool in methods that were uncommon but yet clear

for he ashafai’i is indeed the reformer and established of Usool Fiqh

Imam A shafai’i is Considered to be the reformer of the Second century, he united the sciences of both Fiqh schools of that era Ahlu Al Hadith & Ahlu Ar-Ray and placed a sound fundamental approach to structure matters of Fiqh, in addition to his vast knowledge of Hadith and it’s narration and narrator, Quran and it’s sciences, History, Poetry, literature & Arabic language sciences.

Not to mention his own manners, etiquette & pious ness.

His died Rahimahu Allah year 204 AH in the City of Cairo, Egypt where his grave is very well known

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said: “Imam A shafai’i was like the Sun to the earth, and like health to a body how could either survive with out the other”

he also said, “Fiqh was a locked science until Allah sent A shafai’i to open it”

Imam Abu Zura’a said: I don’t know anyone that gave to the Muslim Ummah as A shafai’i”

Imams of the Shafai’i School

Narrators of the Old school:

imam Ahmed bin hanbal

Abu thawr

Aza’farani

Al Karabeesy

Narrators of the New school:

Al Muzni

Al Buwayti

Rabee Al Muraadi

Harmala

Rabee Aj-Jezi

Younis bin Abd Al ‘Alaa

All mentioned above died in the Third century “ie: 200 to 300”

in the fourth century: “ie: 300 to 400”

Imam Ibn Suraij

Al Qafaal Ashashi

Abu Hamid Al Isfaraeni

Al Istakhry

Al Marwazi

Ibn Abi Hurayra

Ibn Al Qaas

And others

In the Fifth Century: “ie: 400 to 500”

Al Mawordi

Abu Ishaq Ashirazi

Abu Muhamad Al Juwani with his son the Imam

Al Bayhaqi

Al Banadniji

Al Mahamili

Al Qafaal Asagheer Al Marwazi

Al Qadi Hussain

Al Fuwrani

Al Mas’oudi

Ibn Asabbaagh

Al Mutuwali

And others

In the Sixth century: “ie: 500 to 600”

Al Ghazali

Ashashi

Al Baghawi

Al ‘Imraani

And others

In the Seventh Century: “ie: 600 to 700”

Ibn As-Salah

Al Qizweeni

Al ‘Izz ibn Abudussalam

And the two great Imams of the school and one of the evolution points of the school

An-Nawawi and Ar-Rafa’I

Ibn Al Firkaah

Ibn Daqiq al ‘eed

And others

In the Eighth century: “ie: 700 to 800”

Ibn Arifa’a

At-Taqi As-Subki

Al Qamouli

Al Isnawi

Al Athra’i

Al Bulqeeni

Ibn Al Mulaqin

Az-Zarkashi

Ibn An-Naqib

Asharaf Al Barzi

Al Muhib At-Tabary

And others

In the Ninth Century: “ie: 800 to 900”

Al Wali Al Iraqi

At-Taqi Al Hisni

Ashihaab Ibn Raslan “Author of Az-Zubad”

Ibn Qadi Shuhba

Ibn Al Muzjd

Ad-Dumairi

Al Jalal Al Mahali

Al Aqfahsi

Ibn Al Muqre

Abdu Allah Bin Abd Ar-Rahman Bafdal

And others

In the Tenth Century: “ie: 900 to 1000”

Al Jalal Aswuti

Shaikh Al-Islam Zakaryyah Al Ansari

Al Khateeb Ashirbini

Ashihaab Aramli and his sun Ashams

Ibn Hajar Al Haytami

Abdu Allah bin Makhrama

Ibn Qasim Al Abbadi

Baqushair

Ibn Ziyyad

And others

In the eleventh century: “ie: 1000 to 1100”

Al Burhaan Al Birmawy

Ali Ashabramalsi

Ar-Rasheedi

And others

In the Twelfth century: “ie: 1100 to 1200”

Mohamed Sulaiman Ak-Kurdi the Faqeeh of Hijaaz

Sulaiman Aj-Jaml

And others

In the thirtieth century: “ie: 1200 to 1300”

Al Bajuri

Asharqawi

Al Bujairami

Abdu Allah bin Hussain Balfaqeeh

Abdu Allah bin Ahmed Basudan

Saaed bin Mohamed Ba’shan

Abd Ar-Rahman bin Sulaimaan Al Ahdal

Ali Basabreen

And others

In the fortenth century: “ie: 1300 to 1400”

Assayid ‘Ailwi bin Ahmed As-Saqqaf

Ahmed bin Zaini Dihlaan

Bakri Shata

Abd Ar-Rahmaan Al Mashhooor

Abu Bakr bin Abd Ar-Rahmaan bin Shihaab

Abu Bakr bin Ahmed Al Khateeb

Abdu Allah Bajmmaah

Abdu Allah bin ‘Umar Ashateri

Ahmed bin ‘Umar Ashateri

Abd Ar-Rahmaan Bin ‘Ubaaid Allah As-Saqqaf

Mohamed bin hadi As-Saqqaf

Mohamed bin Salim bin Hafeez

And many others

For the scholars of the shafai’I school are more than what we know on paper nor would a book be suffice in collecting all of them

Best proof for that is imam as-Subki’s book the ranks of the shafai’is in 10 vol. Which explains that the vast majority of scholars are of the shafai’I school and that these scholars that excelled in the shafai’i school were also experts in other fields of islamic knowledge; for example:

Usool yon: “Fundamentalist’s”

Al Juwaini “Author of Al Burhaan”

Al Ghazali “Author of Al Musstasfa”

Ar-Razi “Author of Al Mahsool”

At-Taaj As-Subki “Auther of Jam’ Al Jawame”

Al Baydawi “Author of Minhaaj Al Usool”

And many others, for indeed their books are the best books of Usool.

Muhadetheen: “Scholars of Hadith”

Ad-Daraqutni

Ibn Khuzaima

Ibn Hibaan

Abu Nu’aym

Ibn Al Munthir

Al Khattabi

Al Khateeb Al Bughdadi

Al Hafith Al Bayhaqi “Author of As-Sunnan”

Az-Zain Al Iraqi “Author of Al Alfyyah”

Al Haythami “other than Al Haytami, Haythami is the Author of Majma’ Az-Zawaaid”

Ibn Hajjar Al ‘Assqalani “Author of Fath Al Bari”

And others

Muarikhoon: “Historians”

Ibn ‘Assaakir “Author of Tarikh Dimashq”

AthaHabi “Author of Syar ‘Allaam An-Nubalaa”

As-Safdi “Author of Al Wafi”

Ibn Katheer “Author of Al Bedaya w An-Nihayah”

Ibn Atheer “Auther of Al Kamil”

Mutakalmoon: “Theologians”

Al Halimi ” Author of Shu’ab Al Imaan”

Abdu Al Qahir Al Bughdadi

Al Fakhr Ar-Razi “Author of Al Matalib Al ‘Ulyyah”

Al ‘Adud Al Eji

Al Aamadi

Al ‘Alaa Al Baaji

Al Asfahaani

At-Tiftifazi

And others

Mufasiroon: “Scholars of Explaining the Quran”

Al Mawordi “Author of At-Tafsir”

Al Khazin

Al Baghawi “Author of Ma’aalim At-Tanzil”

And others

Quraa: “Scholars of Recitation”

Al Ja’bari

Ibn Al Jazari “Author of Tibatu An-Nashr”

Ashihaab Al Qustalani

Nahawyoon: “Grammatical and Lingusitical Scholars”

Abu Hayyan Al Andalusi

Ibn Malik “Author of the Alfyyah”

Ibn ‘Uqayl

Ibn Hishaam

Al Fayruzabaadi “Author of Al Qamoos”

And others

Sufiyyah: “Scholars of heart and soul”

Al Qushairi “Author of Risalit Al Qushairyyah”

Al Imam Al Ghazali

Al Imam Abdu Allah Bin ‘Ilwi Al Haddad

And these are yet a few of the scholars in the shafai’I school and their expetiese in other feilds

Brief Historical description of the Shafai’i school

Or

Evelution history of the school

Acourding to historical events in the schools history it is noticed that the school went through five stages of evolution:

1. Establishment of the school

Which ended with the death of the founder

And the studies he left like Al Umm and Ar-Risala

2. Distribution of the knowledge

Where the student of Shafai’I started teaching and spreading the knowledge of their teacher

For example: Mukhtasar Al Muzani “The notes of al Muzani”

3. The Extention of the Knowledge

When more events appeared which forced the scholars in responding to these issues with what they were taught as a bases of their approach

Which lead to two branches of the school being formed due to the methods understood

A. The Iraqi Method: which was represented by; Abu Hamid Al Isfaraeni, Al Mawordi, Abu Tayyib At-Tabari, Al Banadnji, Al Mahamili, Sulaym Ar-Razi and Others

B. The Khurasani Method: which was represnted by ‘Ali Al Qaffal As-Saagheer Abu Bakr Al Marwazi, Abu Muhamed Al Juwani, Al Fuwrani, Al Qadi Hussain, Abu ‘Ali As-Sinji, Al Maso’di and others

4. The Verifacation

Which took place with Ar-Rafa’I and An-Nawawi books, most importantly Al Muharar, Asharh Al Kabir and Asharh As-Saghir last two being based off of Al Wajiz by Al Ghazali and these books were written by Ar-Rafa’I

And then An-Nawawi’s books such as; Al Minhaaj, Al Majmo’ sharh Al Muhathab and Ar-Rawda

These six books were essencial in the verification process of the schoola and in reviewing the narrations and statements of the scholars or the school and authenticatiing the infromation narrated with in the school boundaries.

Note: It is important for the reader to know that An-Nawawi Worked on Ar-Rafa’I’s books While handling his book Al Minhaaj.

5. The settlement

This stage mainly was focused on two great scholars

Ibn Hajar Al Haytami and his book Tuhfatul Muhtaaj and Ashams Ar-Ramli and his book Nihayatul Muhtaaj

Which both explaining An-Nawawi’s book Al Minhaaj

Where both of these scholars adjusted what needed adjustment and clearified what was not mentioned in the books of the scholars before them, which made their effort the final stage of the schools foundation.

Therefore, the additions and adjustments made by these to were suffice in filling any open gaps after the works of Ar-Rafa’I and An-Nawawi

And this is what later scholars have agreed upon.

Important info to know;

If Ar-Rafa’I and An-Nawawi agree on a matter it becomes standerd of the school

If they differ then An-Nawawi exceeds Ar-Rafa’I

Although; for a fatwa stand point what ever either of them have said is accepted due to the issue present

And if Ibn Hajar and Ar-Ramli Agree on a matter that wasn’t discussed before them than it is school standard

If they differ the people of Hijaaz and Hadurmout choose to pick Ibn Hajars opinion, and the people of Ashaam abd Egypt pick Ar-Ramli’s opinion

Note: That is not out of nationality or being stbburn to own country men but rather due to the detailed Knowledge those scholars had of those area by them leaving there and being exposed to different issues concerning those terrotories

As far as the rest of the authentic and recommeneded  scholars of the shafa’I school it is premissable to quote their opinions in diiferent matters except what has been agreed upon due to mistakes, errors and weakness.

And this can only be determind by the scholars of this field

Notes:

The order of studying An-Nawawi’s books and Opinions:

At-Tahqeeq then Al Majmo’ then At-Tanqeeh then Ar-Rawdah then Al Minhaaj then His Fatawa then Sharh Muslim then Tasheeh An-Nukat then His Nukat

Some of the scholars said about al haytami’s books:

It has been known in Hijaaz and in Yemen

What ibn hajar al haytami is better for them

But if he differs in his looks

We have to orginize his books

They said At-Tuhafah then Al Fath

But do not look in to its sharh

Important Books in the Shafai’i School

The books of fiqh have many different types and sections but mainly are:

Mutoon “Basic Text”

Shurooh “Explaintion of Basic text”

Hawashi “Commentary on the Explination”

Fatawa “Answers to critical or unordinary questions”

important Mutoon:

Ar-Risala Al Jame’a by Assayid Ahmed bin Zain Al Habashi

Safeenatu Najja by Salim bin Sumair Al Hadroumi

Two Mukhtasar: Al Kabeer and Al Sagheer “Al Muqadema Al Hadroumyyah” both by Abdu Allah bin Abd Ar-Rahman Bafdal

Al Yaqut An-Nafees by Assayid Ahmed bin ‘Umar Ashateri

Al Ghaya At-Taqreeb by Al Qadi Abu Shuja’ Al Asfahanit/Al Asbahani

Manthumat Safwat Az-Zubad by Shihab Ad-Deen Ahmed bin Raslan

Umdatus Salik by Ibn An-Naqib

At-Tanbih and Al Muhathab by Ashirazi

Minhaaj At-Talbeen and Ar-Rawdah by An-Nawawi

Al Irshaad by Ibn Al Muqri

important Shurooh:

Nail Ar-Rajja by Ahmed bin ‘Umar Ashateri

Bushra Al Kareem by Saaed bin mohamed Basha’an

Sharh ibn Al Qasim ‘Ala Abi Shuja’

Al Iqnaa by Al Khateeb Ashirbini

Fath Al’Allam bsharh murshid al Anaam by Al Jurdani

Fath Al Wahab by Shaikh al Islam Zakariyyah Al Ansari

Fath Al Mu’een bsharh Quratul ‘Ayn by Zain Ad-Deen bin Abdul Aziz Al Milibari

Explination of Al Minhaaj/Shurooh Al Minhaaj:

Kanz Ar-Raghbeen by Al Mahhali

Mughni Al Muhtaaj by Ashirbini

Nihayatul Mutaaj by Ar-Ramil

Tuhfatul Muhtaaj by Al Haytami

Important Hawashi:

Hashiyat Al Bajori

Hashiyat Assayid Bakri bin shata Ad-Dumyati

Hashiyat Abdu Allah bin Hijazi Asharkawi

Al Hawashi Al Madanyyah by Al Kurdi

Hashiyat At-Tirmisi

Hashiyat Al Bujairami

Hashiyat Sulaiman Al Jaml w Al Bujairmi ‘Ala Sharh Al Manhj

Hawashi on Al Minhaaj:

Hashiyat Abd Al Hameed Ashirawani w Ibn Qasim Al Abbadi ‘Ala At-Tuhfa

Hashiyat Al Qalyubi w ‘Umaira ‘Ala Sharh Al Muhhali

Hashiyat Ashabramalsi w Ar-Rashibi ‘Ala An-Nihaya

Important Fatwa books:

Fatwa of Sultan Al ‘Ulama Al ‘Izz bin AbduSalam

Fatwa of Al Imam As-Subki

Al Hawi lil Fatawai by Asuiti

Al Fatawa Al Kubra by Ibn Hajar

Fatawa Bakhrama

Bughyatul Al Mustarshideen fi talkhees Fatawa ba’d Al Aiema min al Al ‘Uelama Al Muta’akhreen by Assayid Abdu Ar-Rahman Al Mashhoor

Important books used for the scince of Hadith with in the shafai’I school:

At-Talkhees Al Habeer by Ibn Hajar Al ‘Assqalani

Al Badr Al Muneer and Tuhfatul Muhtaaj by Ibn Al Mulaqin

Important books discussing the proof that the shafai’I school uses:

Nihayatul Matlab by the Imam

Al Hawi Al Kaber by Al Mawurdi

Al Majmo’ Sharh Al Muhathab by An-Nawawi

Fath Al ‘Aziz bsharh Al wajeez by Ar-Rafa’I

Sharh al Minhaah by At-Taqi As-Subki

Important books handling defenisions and terminologies with in the school:

Al Misbaah Al Muneer by Al Fayumi

Taher At-Tanbeeh and Daqaiq Al Minhaaj by An-Nawawi

An-Nathm Al Musta’thib Fi hal Alfaath Al Muhathab by Ibn Bitaal Ar-Rakbi

Important book handling the biographies of the Scholars with in the school:

Tabaqaat Ashafa’yyah by Ibn ‘Assim Al ‘Abbadi

Tabaqaat Ashafa’yyah Al Kubraa by At-Taaj As-Subki

Tabaqaat Ashafa’yyah by Al Isnawi

Tabaqaat Ashafa’yyah by Ibn Qadi Shuhba

At-Tuhfa Al Bahyyah by Asharkawi “not yet printed”

Why the shafai’i School?

There is to much detail to point out why, but we will share a few with the readers:

1. The founder of this school excelled in the Quran and Sunnah along side with that he excelled in almost every field Concerning the Quran and Sunnah. In addition the to main focus on these points was due to his studies, he studied with The Imam of Madina Malik bin Anas who excelled in Hadith and was at the top of Ahlu Al Hadith of his era.

Ahmed bin Hanbal the great Imam of Ahlu Assunah studied under Imam Ashafai’i and every great Imam that followed Ashafai’I excelled in Quran and Sunnah all of this made the foundation on which the school stands extemrely firm. Almost half if not more of the Muslim Scholars were Shafai’I.

2. As mentioned above the founder excelled in the studying methodology of Ahlu Al Hadith, he also met up with Mohamed bin Hasan Ashaybani in Baghdad who was the number two student of Imam Abu Hanifah. Which gave Ashafai’i the ability to excelled in the science of Qyiyas and the Arts of Istinbaat.

That is why we see that he is the first to place a paper on Usool fiqh.

3. By having the knowledge of both main methodologies of that time made the opinions of Imam Ashafai’I logical and down the middle.

4. Due to the unique techniques of Ashafai’I; the followers and students of the school had the oppertunity not only to student fiqh of the school but rather excel in other field as we saw in the beging the different scholars and their expertise.

By that being said; every scholar with in the school was able to contribute their expertise which gave the student of the school the upper hand in all fields of ‘Ilm.

5, With the Quantity of the individuals within the school plus their contributions to the school which left us with a legacy of books and paper work in science concerning our deen. The true about of books that were written with in the school can not be counted to to the quantity.

While there might be books that have not been serviced or looked at at all, the more authentic books have been the concern of the ‘Ualama in Every century they worked hard and they continue working on these books.

For example: there are close to 300 explinations on al minhaaj between Shurooh, Hawashi and benefits regarding the book Al minhaaj.

6. The geographical layout of the school is so vast that it gave the school the ability to be taught all over the world from Malasyia and Idonesiya in Asia to India then Yemen and Persia to Iraq, Ashaam, Hijaaz, Egypt abd most of eastern africa.

It might be inposibale to find a country that has not be shafai’i at a period in history.

7. As Mentioned in the begining the scholars of Islam look at Ashafai as the reformer of the 2nd century

So has been the case for other scholars through out history.

The prophet Sala Allahu ‘Alahi w salim Said that Allah would send a reformer at the begining of every one hundered years

Let’s take a walk through history:

Third Century: Abu Al ‘Abbas Ibn Surayj

Fourth Century: Abu At-Tayyib As-Saa’luki

Fifth: Al Ghazali

Sixth: Al Fakhr Ar-Razi

Seventh: An-Nawawi

Eighth: Al Isnawi

Ninth: Ibn Hajar Al A’skalani

Tenth: As-Seuti

With minro differences amoungst the ‘Ulama of Ahlu As-Sunnah on who was exactly might the person of a century be the reformer.

But majority of the time it is a Shafai scholar, their names are what people know everywhere

Notes:

Some scholars said:

Our school was identified by a Hero

May his end hold no Sorrow

Bassit and Wassit to the Letter

Wajeez and Khulasa that was even Better