Notes for 6.29.2013
We will jump forward to book of fasting as Ramdahan is coming starting on page 431.
Sawm means to refrain from anything linguistically. The word sawm is used by Marium to mean refraining from speech.
Sawm in the law means to refrain from invalidators of fasting from fajr to the setting of the sun.
The proof for fasting comes from the Qur’aaan. It was made obligatory in the second year after the Migration. The ninth month is the month of Ramadhan.
Many benefits of Ramadhan are derived from both the Qur’aan and Hadith including reward being greater for worship, the reward being Your Lord Himself, and protection from Hell.
Fasting can be obligatory, recommended, reprehensible, or not permissible. There is nothing except that it takes multiple rulings. The beginner and ignorant think acts have only one ruling.
Obligatory times (6): Ramadhan, makeups of Ramadhan, seeking water can be obligatory if the Hakim orders it, fasting if one made a vow, and compensation for breaking an obligatory
Recommended fasts are day of Arafah, eleventh of Muharram, sixth of shawwal, ten days of Dhul Hijjah., the white days in each month, Mondays and Thursdays. Many are mentioned. Please reference the translation for a complete list.
The best fasting is to fast one day and not fast one day which is the fast of David (peace be upon him).
It is reprehensible to single out Fridays for fasting or fasting the above mentioned fast of David if you fear harm.
It is not permissible to fast for the wife without the permission of her husband. This only applies to recommended fasts.
A fast can be impermissible and invalid. Such as fasting either of the Eids, the three days following Eid of Al-Udhha. The last half of Shabaan is haram to fast except for those who have a habit of fasting. Fasting the day of doubt is also haraam. This is the day that it could be the 30th of Shabaan or the first day of Ramadhan.
There are cases when fasting the day of doubt and the last of shabaan:
If you have prior makeups on you.
If you have a habit of doing weekly fasts.
Conditions of Validity
Being free from menstruation and post-partum bleeding; For a women whose bleeding ends during the day, it is recommended for to finish the day by refraining from the things that invalidate the fast.
Knowing that the day you are fasting is a day it is not impermissible to fast that day
When Does Prayer Become Obligatory
Being a Muslim; For one who leaves Islam, it is not valid for him fast but if he return to Islam he has to make up all the missed fasts.
Being morally responsible; This is similar to prayer. A kid at the age of seven should be ordered to fast.
The ability to fast; physical like having the strength to do so. Legally like women menstruating.
Health – Those who are sick do not need to fast if it will lead to destruction (death), delay of returning to normal health, or increase in sickness. These are similar to those mentioned as valid reasons to make dry ablution. The doctor must be consulted to confirm this. The doctor does not have to be a Muslim but has to be reliable.
Not being a traveler – Traveler is one how travels for a permissible purpose and leaves before the start of Fajr. Fasting is still preferred in this madhab. It can be for a merely permissible reason such as sight seeing but this is differed upon in the other madhabs. One may willingly travel during Ramadah and then not fast without any sin. Travel period is four days not including the day of arriving and departing.
Many confusion exists around sighting the moon. We should follow a particular group and not reprimand others for having a different opinion.