The first integral of fasting is the intention. It is not necessary to utter it but have it in place in the heart.
Intention for a mandatory fast must take place between setting of sun and before the start of fajr. In contrast, one can intend a recommended fast until the sun’s zenith.
In an obligatory fast, you must intend the specific obligation such as a fast of Ramdahan or makeup. A recommended does not require specifying the fast itself.
Finally, in a recommended fast you can combine different intentions for other recommended fasts but you can not combine intention for two obligatory fasts in one. You can intend an obligatory fast with a recommended fast.
If you do delay your intention for a recommended fast until the start of dhuhr, you can only do it if you have avoided one of the things that would invalidate your fast.
You must intend every day individually fast of Ramadhan.
If your habit is to fast a particular sunnah fast and you forget that it is the day you normally fast and east something, then it is still valid for you to intend and fast that day.
The scholars recommended to intend to fast the entire of Ramadhan following the madhab of Imam Malik. In addition, as above you also intend every day as it is required in our madhab.
The second integral is refraining from things that invalid the fast.
The excused ignorant is one who is either a new Muslim or one who lives far from scholars. This person is excused if he eats during the time of fasting along with those who eat under compulsion or forgetfully.
Ramadhan becomes obligatory in two cases.
Completion of thirty days of Shabaan
Sighting of the new moon. The person seeing the moon must be upright..
Who is obligated by sighting of the moon?
The mutamid is that if someone sees the new moon in a certain area, then all people under that ruler must fast. Thus, if it is seen someone in Saudi sees it, then all in Saudi are obligated and not those in Jordan.
If a fasiq sees the moon, other are not obligated to fast though he is obligated to fast. If someone comes to you and tells you to he saw the moon, you follow him if he is someone that can be trusted.
Another thing that can obligate fasting is seeing a sign that often indicates the entering of Ramadhan such as sines sounding in some countries which indicates the start of Ramadhan.
Travel issues related to difference between the land you left and and the land you reach and what to do when they are on different schedules as far as Ramadhaa.
If you find a difference between Ibn Hajar and Ramli, then both can be followed and both are mutamid opinions.
In terms of travel on plane, the best is to start traveling before fajr.
You must fast even in places where days as long such as 19 hours.
Recommended Acts of Fasting
Hastening to open the fast only after one is certain the sun has set. One must be careful to make sure that sun has indeed set. Just because the sun has disappeared in front of you, that does not mean the sun has indeed set. The entire sun must set. You can use a reliable time table that is made by those specialized in the science of astronomy. In some countries like Yemen, the Salafis will make the adhann five minutes before than the enitre sunsets. The Salafi make adhaan when it looks like the sun has set when reality it has only gone away from our site. One can use one’s sight to see if the sun has set if one is at a high level such as on the 100th floor not the 10th floor.
Delaying the pre-dawn meal and stop eating approximately 50 verses before the start of fajr. The Salafis say it is permissible to drink water while the adhaan is going on which is not allowed in any madhab.
Best to open fast with a date at is early stage of its development then recommend to use a date in other states, then water, then any thing sweet.
Important rule to remember that if you are in doubt if maghrib entered or fajr entered, then certainly is maintained and the prior state remains. So, if you doubt if fajr has entered, then default is that it is still the night and fajr has entered. But one should take caution in general.
Supplication is mentioned that is recommended to say at time of opening the fast.
Feeding others during Ramadhan.
Taking a bath if you are in a state of major ritual impurity prior to the beginning of the fast.
Taking a bath prior to fasting is recommended for every night.
Being standfast on going to taraweeh. This can be even prayed at home.
Being steadfast on witr which has the following unique features.
Prayed in congregation
Recite out loud
Supplication of Qunut is recommended in the last cycle.
Increase in Quraan recital
Striving in the last ten days of Ramdahan
Many other things mentioned directly from text not translated here.
Leaving foul language
Cleaning ones teeth prior to praying is not necessary.
Fast are three types according to Imam Ghazazil
The common fast is refraining from the outward invalidators.
The higher fast is to refrain from sin
The highest fast is to refrain from everything other than Allah.