Class Notes 7.22.2013
Conditions For Validity of Fasting
Condition of fasting is Islam, sanity (even if you loose it for a second), being free from menstruation and post-natal bleeding for the entire fasting time. If one’s bleeding stops during the day, then it is recommended to abstain from the invalidators of fast for the remainder of the day.
One who sleeps the entire day is still valid in terms of the fast. As for the person who passes out, some have considered this an invaldator of the fast if it is most of the day. Others have said that even if you are conscious during a single moment of the day, then the fast is still valid which is what Imam Nawwawi chose and is the strongest opinion. If you are not conscious the entire day, then it is not valid.
Fasting the day of Eid is not valid and there is scholarly consensus on this. This is true of the three days that follow Eid al-Adha. Though there are some who have said the three days mentioned before is valid to fast them but this is not the strongest opinion in out school.
It is not permissible to fast the day of doubt which is the 30th of Shawwal when one doubts whether Ramdhan has started or not. If one’s habit to fast certain days or is fasting make ups, then fasting that day is valid. This can happen if there is a witnessing of the moon but the witnessing does not fulfill the conditions. There being overcast preventing from seeing the moon would not entail being a day of doubt. Rather, this would confirm the next being the 30th of Shawwwal and not first of Ramadhan. Day of doubt is when there has been an unvalidated sighting.
It is recommended to open one’s fast with a date or something sweet. If not available, then water. and hasten to open the fast once one is certain the time has entered. It is recommended to delay the pre-dawn meal. Also, one should protect one’s tongue from foul speech. It is also recommended to curb one’s permissible desires. It is recommended to take one’s obligatory bath when one is in ritual impurity as some schools say that being in that state invalidates the fast.
It is disliked to taste food without need.
Conditions That Make Fasting Obligatory
Sanity and puberty are required.
At the age of seven, children are commanded to fast if they have the physical ability to.
One must be able to fast legally and physically.
It is permissible to not fast for the sick and traveller. If a healthy person is struck with sickness, he is allowed to break his fast.
All missed need to be made up except for the non-beliver, the child, and someone who looses their sanity.
One who reaches 15 lunar years, then he will need to begin fasting. For someone who begins the day not fasting and then his sanity returns to him, becomes a Muslim, they are not obligated to repeat that day of fast.
For the person whose travel finishes or sickness finishes during the day of Ramadhan, it is not recommended for them to abstain for the remainder of the day.
However, on the day of doubt if you find out that it is indeed the first of Ramadhan and you have already eaten, then it is recommended for you to abstain for the reminder of the day.
Someone who dies before completing his makeups and he was not able to fast them, then there is no sin. If one died with fasts that needed to be made up, then the wali makes up his fasts for him. The wali is any relative and he can fast without requiring any permission. As for a non-related person, he can only fast with the permission of the wali. This is because the fasts are considered a debt and thus take a similar ruling.
If on dies with prayers to be made up or a spiritual seclusion, then in our school these can not be made up or require any payment.
Those of advanced age who can not fast must give a mud of food (750 g) for each fast.
For the pregnant women who breaks fast fearing for herself or for both herself and her infant, then she only owes a makeup fast. One who breaks his fast sinfully only needs to make up that fast as long as it is not from intercourse.
If a makeup fast is not made up before the coming of the next Ramadhan, then you must pay a mud for every day which is compounded by the passing of every year.
The mud (handful of food) must be given to the poor. The faqeer is a person who does not have half of of the money he needs for his daily expenses. The miskeen is someone who has most of what he needs to cover his costs but still falls short. You can also give your distribution to one person or to many. The food that one gives should be the same as zakat al-fitr thus being of the basic food that everyone eats from.
It was asked about the terminology of the Imam Nawwai. He answered the questions and a separate post regarding this has been made.