Class Notes 7.21.2013
Condition of fasting is abstaining from intercourse and inducing vomit. Some have said that it only invalidates the fast if is swallowed but this is a weaker opinion. Naturally, vomiting is not a problem. As for phlegm, if it originates in the nasal cavity and reaches the outer aspect of the mouth, then one must expel it or else it invalidates the fast. The outer portion of the mouth is where the letter “kha” is and the deeper portion is that which the letter “ha” exits from. Thus, if it reaches the place of the letter”ha” then it does not invalidate the fast.
Any body that reaches via an opening to the inner part of the body invalidates the fast. Some have said that the body must be something that has nutritional value however this is a weak opinion. According to the latter opinion, eating a rock would not invalidate one’s fast. Thus, if something reaches the stomach, the brain, or bladder, the fast is invalidated. If one has an open wound, on the head and something enters through this, this would invalidate the fast.
The most correct opinion is that something entering the ear invalidates the fast as does something entering the urethra (‘ihleel). This things that reach these inner parts of the body must reach through an open entry point such as the mouth or ears. For example, the eyes are not considered an open entry point thus if something is found in the throat that was originally placed on the eyes, then it would not invalidate the fast.
Entering dust or small bugs on the streets do not invalidate the fast as long as it is not intentional.
Saliva does not invalidate as long as it is comes from the tongue or mouth.
Water swallowed during ablution does not invalidate as long as one is not excessive in the rinsing.
Food remaining between the teeth and it is liberated from the flow of one’s saliva as long as one is unable to tell if there is indeed food there or not, swallowing this would be excused.
Eating forgetfully does not invalidate the fast. Though, Imam Rafi said if one eats an excessive amount of food then it would invalidate however this is not the strongest opinion.
Seeking ejaculation invalidates the fast.
Kissing is disliked for those lust
Blood letting does not invalidate the fast in the Shafi Madhab.
Times of Doubt (Starting of the Day and Ending the Day)
The default state is that the night continues when one doubts whether fajr has started or not. Similarly, at the time of maghrib, the default is that the day continues until one has certainty that the sun has set. Thus, as long as you have doubt, it is not permissible to open the fast until certainty has been reached.
If one has doubt at the start of Fajr and continues to eat and then finds out later that he ate into fajr, his fast is invalid.
If one has food in his mouth and fajr enters, if one takes out the food from his mouth, his fast is valid.
Ja’ifah and ma’moonah – they are types of injuries to the head.