Class Notes 7.20.2013
We will be reading from Minhaj Al-Talibin. This is considred the biggest text in this madhab. If we understand this book, we have really understood the subject matter. The goal in reading a bigger book like this is such that we move from being just learners to being able to open any book and understand.
Book of Fasting
Fasting Ramadhaan is obligatory by the completion of 30 days of Sha’baan or seeing the new moon of Ramadhaan.
We previously took this from Taqreerat. We see the same points are present in both books but in different forms.
Sighting the moon must be done by one reliable viewer who fulfills the conditions of uprightness. (some of which are being male, sound of mind, pious). Some have said that one does not suffice but needs to be two but this is the weaker opinion. The testification can not be taken from a slave or women. If we fast based on the sighting of a reliable person and thirty days past and we do not see the moon of Shawwal, which means that sighting was inaccurate, we do not fast more than thirty days. At the time of sighting the moon, all of those who are in the close lands must follow this sighting but not ones in farther lands. The distance is differed upon where al-Rafi says the distance is the distance of travel; al-Nawawi says that two areas are considered one area with respect to sighting if the sun rises and sets together. This is really a matter best left for the specialists to decide.
Shaikh mentions it is permissible to consider the entire world as one land and thus if the moon is seen anywhere then one can start to fast based on that.
If one travels at the end of Shabaan for the moon not having been seen in his land and one arrives in an area where they did see the moon and began fasting, you start fasting with them.
We see that we have now read only half page of the Minhaaj but the statements were very compact.
The Integrals of Fasting;
The first integral of fasting is the intention. The intention for an obligatory fast must take place the day before between maghrib and fajr. Some have said that it must take place after half the evening. Some have also said that after you intend you must avoid the things that break one’s fast even if the time for fasting has not entered. The time for intending a recommended fast lasts until just before dhuhr. There is weaker opinion that the intention for a recommended fast can take place even after that time. It is obligatory while intending that one specify the type of obligatory fast , whether a makeup, fast of Ramadhaan, or a vowed fast. There is a difference in whether one must intend that the fast is a current fast or makeup. The correct opinion is that it is recommended to add whether one is doing a current fast or makeup.
Intending on the day that would have been thirtieth day of Shabaan however, based on some indication that the next day is first of Ramadhaan, one can intend to fast the next day even if one has weaker proofs.