Class Notes 7.12.2013
We have thus far covered most of the rulings of fasting. We will now cover some ancillary issues.
Situations when one’s fast is broken and it is obligatory for that person to continue to abstain from things that break the fast and he must repeat his fast. This only happens in Ramadan.
One who breaks his fast purposefully
One who forgets to make the intention; waking up for suhur suffices for being an intention
One who mistakenly eats into the time of Fajr
One who mistakenly opens his fast thinking the sun had set but it actually had not.
One who thought it was the 30th of Shabaan and then he finds out it is actually Ramadan.
One whose fast breaks from water reaching inside during rinsing the mouth or nose when it is done for other than when it is called for like in the ablution or ritual bath.
Situations when something reaches the inside of the body and it does not invalidate the fast
Something that enters forgetfully
Not knowing that doing a certain act would invalidate the fast and one has a valid excuse for not knowing such as one who just became a Muslim or someone who lives very far from other Muslims or scholars.
Being forced to consume something. This has many conditions. For example, you are forced otherwise you will be harmed physically. One must eat only for avoiding harm not eating for oneself.
Saliva that is pure and it carries some residual food that is between the teeth.
Dust in the streets.
Inadvertently eating a small insect that enters the mouth.
If a child reaches puberty, a sick person is cured, or a traveler finishes his travel during the day, it is obligatory for them to refrain for the reminder of the day.
If menstruating or post-partum women, someone who comes out of his insanity, or non-Muslim embraces Islam, then it is recommended for them to refrain for the rest of the day.
For the apostate, he must make up all fasts that he missed during his time of apostasy.
Note that eating during the call to prayer of fajr invalidates the fast. The start of the adhann marks the star of fajr which means time for fasting has started. Unfortunately, there are those who have given fatwas that is OK to eat during that time but this is a big mistake as no madhabs allow this. There is an authenticated hadith that says this but the scholars interpret in another way. The hadith in meaning is that if you hear the call to prayer and one has a glass in his hand then one should not put it down until on has filled his need form it. However, the hadith is interpreted in another way since there is clear text from the Qur’aan fasting starts at the time of fajr.
If there is a person who dies with fast that he needs to make up, then any relative may make up the fasts for him as long as he allows it. Otherwise, you can give away a handful of food for each day that needs to be made up.
It is permissible to break a non-obligatory fast without any reason however it is disliked to do so. This is not allowed in the other schools. However, in an obligatory fast it is not allowed.
It is not allowed to continually fast two days without eating anything. It suffices to just eat eat even something minimal between the days. Tish was only allowed for the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Making up the fast that one breaks without a valid reason needs to be made up immediately. Fasts broken for valid reasons such as travel or sickness, it is not obligatory to make up the fast immediately. You can do it when you find it most appropriate.
If you see a person who is fasting and he is eating and he is a person of piety, then it is recommended to inform him. However, in the same situation however the person is someone who is not always observant of the rulings of Allah, then it is obligatory to inform him.
Proof for fasting for others is many. There is a hadith that explicitly says that the wali can fast for someone who passes away and he had fasts that he needed to makeup.
Someone is fasting a recommended fast and if you are offered food, then it is recommended to accept the food and breaks one’s fast. This only for recommended fasts. This is not allowed for obligatory fasts that you are making up.