Class Notes 7.15.2013
It is called this because this is due once fast have finished from Ramdhan. It is also known zakat of the body. It is a means to purify the person. It is obligatory by scholarly consensus.
It has five rulings which relate to when you give out the zakat.
Obligatory – For anyone who has reached even a small portion of Ramdhan and the reaches a portion of Shawaal. The time when this becomes obligatory is at the sunset on the last day of Ramdhan.
Recommneded – Day of eid after the prayer of fajr but before the prayer of Eid. If it is difficult then do it a day or two before Eid is fine.
Permissible – Any day of Ramadhan.
Disliked time – Delaying until sunset on the day of Eid except for a valid reason like waiting for a needy person to come.
Impermissible time – delaying past the day of Eid except out of excuse. Excuse would be that there are no needy people to accept the money.
Who Is It Obligatory For To Pay Zakat Al-Fitr
On all free Muslims that own enough food for the day and night of Eid; he needs to own enough for that will suffice for himself and those he is responsible for like kids including food and whatever else is needed for taking care of them for the day and night of Eid. He should not have a debt on him even if the due date is later though this is differed upon.
What Must You Give
One must give for every person a sa’ which is approximately 3 kg of food as below. The actaul weight must be given but you can another opinion as below.
General Rule For Giving This Zakat On Behalf of Others
You must give the zakat for everyone you are religiously responsible for providing for them. So, if you are responsible for taking care of your father, wife, and two kids then you must give zakat for all of them. Thus, you will give for five people. If you have a kid who is 15 years old, you are not responsible according to the Shariah to provide for him. Thus, you are not obligated to give zakat for him. However, if he does not have the money or is not independent, then the son should appoint his father as an agent to pay the zakat for him. The father needs the permission of the son before he can give the zakat on his behalf.
What you give should be from the basic food of the land such as bread, rice, etc. This is specific for every land. Every land has some food that is essential for that land that everyone eats from. This is what you should give 3 kg from.
You can pay the money equivalent for the amount following the Hanafi School. In the Shafi school, one needs to give the actual weight in food but this can be difficult in our days and thus it is fine to follow another school in this matter.
There are many other rulings but this is the essential of this chapter.
If the wife works, must she pay for zakat for herself? No. She can if she wants but it is not obligatory for her to do it even if she can afford it. She is not responsible to pay for anyone even if the husband can not and she can.
Can you pay zakat for people you do not provide for? Yes, but you must seek their permission to do so.
If you delay paying the zakat past the day of Eid, then you must still pay it but there is no additional penalty. However, it is sinful and thus would require repentance.
The next lesson, we will read from Minhaj At-Talibin in the book of fasting. This book is the biggest book in the Shafii madhab. If we understand that book, then we have understood the biggest book. This will make easy the understanding of remaining books. This is something the Sheikh would like to try for this chapter and see how it goes.