Basics of Fiqh

The Ulama of Islam have placed 10 intro points prior to entering any science

Ibn Sabban said:

Every art has ten points of entry

Define, subject and know the benefit before your entry

Importance and Division will bring you closer

As well as Title, Sources and Composer

Don’t you dare forget what our law says about it

Then definitely take a more detailed look at it

These points are:

1- Its Definition: It is the detailed Study of the physical Islamic Laws, based off of detailed proofs “Quoted from Imam As-Subki”

2- Its Subject: Is the Actions of the assigned people.

3- Its Benefit: Is the Understanding of Allah’s Orders & Commands.

4- Its Importance: This science comes into second place after the science of Tawheed.

5- Its Division: It is part of the Islamic Laws.

6- Its Composer: The Scholars of Islam. 1. Zaid Bin Ali Bin Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib. 2. Abu Hanifah An Numaan.

7- Its Title: The Science of Fiqh. Or the Branches of Islam.

8- Its Sources: Quran, Sunnah, Ijmaa’ & Qiyas.

9- Its Status in the Share’ah: It is Wajib upon all Muslims to study what concerns their Wajib or Fard Activities, It is Highly recommended for some to study more than what is Fard, It is a Sunnah for one to go beyond that to the level of Ijtihaad.

10- Its Chapters: Are Taharah, Salah, Syaam, Zakkat & Hajj …etc.

Share’ah Rulings

There are two types of Islamic law rulings

The first is called Assigned “Taklefi” law: this type of law is Allah’s direct statement that deals with assignments by Allah to his servants in this type falls five categories

Fard, Sunnah, Haram, Makrooh and Mubaah

As Ibn Raslam stated in his Zubad:

Allah Rulings have seven categories

Fard and Sunnah do them and have no worries

Haram and Makrooh and don’t get caught in stories

Play with you kids, have a good time with your families

These are Mubaah things with no worries

Then follows six and seven

False and Correct would complete the seven

Fard: Linguistics is a requirement.

In fiqh terminology: it is what the Share’ah orders your to do with firmness

Its status: once completed one gets a reward, and punished if not fulfilled

Other terms used for this status:

Maktoob “Written”, Wajib “Assigned”, Rukn “Pillar”, Lazim “Must” and Muhatam “Inevitable”

Sunnah: linguistics: a path.

In fiqh terminology: it is what the Share’ah orders you to do with leniency

Its status: once completed intentionally one is rewarded, and no punishment falls on those who don’t complete it

Other terms used for this status:

Mandela “Recommended”, Mustahab “Likeful”, Hasan “Good”, Murghab feh “what outo be done”, at-Tatawu’ “voluntary”

Haram: linguistics the not allowed

In fiqh terminology: it is what the Share’ah ordered not to do firmly

Its status: if avoided intentionally one is rewarded, if committed then a punished falls on one the person

Terms used for this status:

Mahthoor “That is what isn’t allowed”, Mamnoo’ “Forbidden”, Thanb “Bad Deed”, Ma’syyah “Sin”, Mazjoor ‘Anhu “Warned against” and Al Mutawa’ad ‘Alahi “That which has been promised punishment for”

Makrooh: Linguistlly: what should be avoided.

Fiqh Terminology: It is what the Share’ah has forbidden with leniency.

Its status: One is rewarded for avoiding and not punished if fulfilling

Mubaah: linguistics: Allowed

Fiqh terminology: completed or avoided will have the same result

Its status: one is not rewarded nor punished except if correct intentions were in place

Terms used for this status:

Jaiz “Allowed”, Halal “Permissible” and Talq ?

The second type of Islamic Law is Wad’I “which is Allah ruling on a matter in directly”

And this section contains five categories:

1. Sabab: Lingusiticlly: a rope or a cause to something else

Fiqh terminology: What causes due to its presence presences of other issues and for it disappearance disappearance for other issue

2. Shart: Lingusiticlly: is a condition to come that connects to an issue in the future

Fiqh terminology: What causes unavailability when unavailable and does not effect anything when present.

3. MaNi’: linguistics: a Barrier.

Fiqh Terminology: What causes unavailability when present, and availability when not present.

4. Sahih: Linguistics: Correct

Fiqh Terminology: What an action is labelled when all its conditions were fulfilled

5. Fasid: Linguisticlly: False

Fiqh Terminology: What an action is labelled when its conditions are not met