Joining a Rak’ah and Surah al-Fatihah?

On Shafi’i Fiqh:

http://www.shafiifiqh.com/joining-a-rakah-and-surah-al-fatihah/#more-5526

Question:

As salamu alaykum,

If one is joining a jamaat after it has started at what point according to Imam Shafii is the unit of rakat counted as valid. For example: In Hanafi fiqh when a person joins in just before ruku position or when the jamaat is in ruku position, they have got that particular rakat as one and therefore they need to complete the rest of any missed rakats after the first salaam given by the Imaam. Whereas in Shafii fiqh what is the position given that Shafii’s need to make sure they recite Surah Fathiha in every rakat and will not be able to do that just before ruku or whilst the imaam is in ruku position.

Country: Australia

Answer:

Wa alaykum salam wa rahmatuLlahi wa barakatuHu,

In regards to the issue of a latecomer, there is no substantial difference between the Schools. The relied-upon opinion is stated by Imam Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ramli in his Nihayat al-Muhtaj,

“And if the follower catches the imam in ruku’, he has caught the rak’ah. Meaning, what he missed from standing and reciting even if he was negligent by delaying entering into the prayer until the imam bowed without an excuse. The evidence for this is the narration, ‘Whoever catches a rak’ah of the prayer before the imam has stood back up, so he has caught it.’”

In Tuhfah, Ibn Hajar stated something similar.

The As-hab al-Wujuh defined catching a rak’ah: the follower catches the imam while he is bowing, so he bows with him and is still in that posture before the imam rises up. If one does this, then he has caught the rak’ah. This is the relied-upon view of the Shafiyyah and others. It is as though there is a standing consensus on this as Ibn Hazm al-Zahiri said, “They agree that whoever catches the imam while the imam has lifted his head and stood back up and all of those behind him too, then one has missed the rak’ah.” (Maratib al-Ijma’ 1/25) Accordingly, between the scholars there is no real substantial difference on this issue.

In regards to reciting Surah al-Fatihah being considered an integral of the prayer, so according to the Shafiyyah the latecomer is excluded from being obligated to recite it. The imam’s recitation suffices him. Imam Ramli stated this in Nihayah.

And Allah knows best.

Translated by Shaikh Yaqub Abdurrahman Hafithahu Allah

Answered by Muhib ad-Deen al-Rumi

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته، حياكم الله أخي الكريم، اعلم وفقني الله وإياكم أن مسألة المسبوق لا فارق جوهري بين المذاهب الفقهية؛ وإليكم القول المعتمد لدينا؛ يقول الإمام شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد الرملي في نهايته: “(وَإِنْ أَدْرَكَهُ) أَيْ الْمَأْمُومُ الْإِمَامَ (رَاكِعًا) (أَدْرَكَ الرَّكْعَةَ) أَيْ مَا فَاتَهُ مِنْ قِيَامِهَا وَقِرَاءَتِهَا؛ وَلَوْ قَصَّرَ بِتَأْخِيرِ تَحَرُّمِهِ إلَى رُكُوعِ الْإِمَامِ؛ مِنْ غَيْرِ عُذْرٍ؛ لِخَبَرِ: «مَنْ أَدْرَكَ رَكْعَةً مِنْ الصَّلَاةِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُقِيمَ الْإِمَامُ صُلْبَهُ فَقَدْ أَدْرَكَهَا»” 2/241 نهاية المحتاج ط دار الفكر.

وقال ابن حجر في تحفته: “(وَإِنْ أَدْرَكَهُ) أَيْ الْمَأْمُومُ الْإِمَامَ (رَاكِعًا أَدْرَكَ الرَّكْعَةَ) أَيْ مَا فَاتَهُ مِنْ قِيَامِهَا وَقِرَاءَتِهَا؛ وَإِنْ قَصَّرَ بِتَأْخِيرِ تَحَرُّمِهِ لَا لِعُذْرٍ حَتَّى رَكَعَ؛ لِلْخَبَرِ الصَّحِيحِ بِذَلِكَ ” 2/363 نهاية المحتاج، صورة من طبعة دار إحياء التراث العربي، نشرتها المكتبة التجارية الكبرى.

وبيّن أصحابنا أن الإدراك هو: أن يدرك المأموم الإمام راكعًا فيركع معه ويطمئن قبل ارتفاع الإمام وبهذا يدرك الركعة. فهذا هو المعتمد من قول الشافعية، وكذا قالت المالكية والحنابلة، وكأن بينهم إجماع على هذا القول، ومن ذلك ما ذكره ابن حزم الأندلسي الظاهري: “وَاتَّفَقُوا: أَن من أدْرك الإمام وَقد رفع رَأسه من الرُّكُوع واعتدل وَرفع كل من وَرَاءه رؤوسهم واعتدلوا قيَاما فقد فَاتَتْهُ الرَّكْعَة” 1/25 مراتب الإجماع دار الكتب العلمية. وبهذا يُعلم أنه لا فارق بين المذاهب في هذا إن شاء الله.

وأما بالنسبة لركنية الفاتحة لدينا في كل ركعة؛ فالقول لدينا أن المسبوق يستثنى منه هذا الركن ويتحملها عنه الإمام؛ وذلك كما قاله الإمام الرملي في نهايته: “(إلَّا رَكْعَةَ مَسْبُوقٍ) بِهَا حَقِيقَةً أَوْ حُكْمًا،  فَلَا تَتَعَيَّنُ فِيهَا بَلْ يَتَحَمَّلُهَا عَنْهُ إمَامُهُ، إذْ الْأَصَحُّ أَنَّهَا وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ فَيُدْرِكُ الرَّكْعَةَ بِإِدْرَاكِهِ مَعَهُ رُكُوعَهُ الْمَحْسُوبَ لَهُ” 1/477

هذا والله أعلم.

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